India, that is Bharat

Our Constitution refers to India as India, that is ‘Bharat’. Generally Bharat and Bharatavarsha are used interchangeably. And India was the name given to India by Ancient Greeks and our country was known to the Europeans as such. Whereas India was mentioned as Bharat and Bharatavarsha in Puranas and other Hindu scriptures. And Persians called our country as Hind and Arabs called it as Hindustan.


And perhaps the name Bharat as a geographical entity derives its name from legendary Kingdom Bharatavarsha. Literally Bharatavarsha means the country that was ruled by legendary King Bharata during ancient times. And Bharatakhanda should be that part of the Country which was called as Bharatavarsha. Puranas and Itihasas and also Rig Veda mentions King Bharata. Another King Bharata Ruled Kosala Rajya as a nominee of Lord Rama, who was in fact a brother of Lord Rama.


And another legend says that a son of Shakuntala and King Dushyanta who was also called as Bharata Ruled this Bharatavarsha. King Bharata referred in Rig Veda is believed to be this Bharata. And also this Bharata, son of King Dushyanta is believed to be the progenitor of Kuru clan of Maha Bharata.

And Jambudweepa means the land that was inhabited by Bears. (I have observed in my research that present day mid-land between Ganweriwala area of Cholisthan desert was the ancient Jambudweepa.)

Sankalpa sutra

Let us see this hymn of ‘saMkalpa sutra’ which is generally chanted at the beginning of any Hindu Ritual,

ममॊपात्त दुरितक्षयायद्वारा श्री परमॆष्वर प्रीत्यर्थम,


शुभॆ शॊभनॆ मुहूर्ते श्री महा विष्णॊराज्ञ्नयाप्रवर्तमानस्याद्य ब्रह्मणः,
द्वितीय परार्धॆ श्वॆतवराहकल्पॆ वैवस्वत मन्वंतरे कलियुगॆ प्रथमपादे जंबुद्वीपे भरतवर्षॆ भरतखन्डॆ अस्मिन वर्तमान व्यावहारिक चांद्रमानॆ ……संवत्सरॆ …अयनॆ.. ऋतौ..

mamOpaatta duritakShayaayadvaaraa shree paramEShvara preetyartham,

SubhE SObhanE muhoorte shree mahaa viShNOraaj~jnayaapravartamaanasyaadya brahmaNaH,
dviteeya paraardhE SvEtavaraahakalpE vaivasvata manvaMtare kaliyugE prathamapaade jaMbudveepe bharatavarShE bharatakhanDE asmin vartamaana vyaavahaarika chaaMdramaanE ……saMvatsarE …ayanE.. Rutou..

So it should be understood that these references to ancient India as Bharatavarsha, Jambudweepa and Bharatakhanda in a single hymn tells us that these three words are synonymous to each other hence interchangeable. So it would be futile to go and search for them geographically.

And we all know that word Sindhu is used to represent any large water-mass and also to refer to a River in the Sindh Valley in Vedas. And at present there is a large river called as Sindhu flowing in Northern India and travelling via Pakistan and reaching Arabean sea at Sindh. Sindh river takes its birth from near to Lake Manasarovar in the Himalayas. And word Hind is a Persian word and it is said that Persians used word Hindu to refer to Indians, who lived in and around River Sindh and beyond stretching up to Prayag. And Greeks called ancient Bharatavarsha as India.

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And it is also interesting to know that there is a river called as Swat (apparently short form of Saraswati) flowing into River Kabul in Afghanistan. The confluence point of these rivers is called as Prang (Prayag!) even today. And near to this place we find the ruins of an ancient city called as Pushkalavati, which is believed to be the ancient capital of Gandhara Kingdom. And it is said that this city was founded by Pushkala, a Son of Bharata. Even now this region is called as Kandhahar. Another Prang/Prayag exists in Kashmir in Ganderbal district.

Sarvadamana, King Bharata
Sarvadamana, King Bharata

So much water has flown down the stream in history. Any race cannot maintain its pure lineage for long given the exogamy principle followed by Clans in all societies. Can we see any dynasty persist beyond Five or Six generations any where in the World? No. So Men may come and men may go but Culture continues to live on. What we are is not our physical genes but cultural traits. Culture is transmitted from generation to generation not simply by biological means but also thru social means. It is true that Geography and Genes determine physical identity of a People . But fact is that genes may transform in due course of time because of geographical influences and food habits but Culture continues to live on.

And under the influence of Aryanism we are now calling the Geographical area covered by present day Indian States of Karnataka, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala as South India (Dalshinadi Rajyas). But Puranas and Hindu Scriptures call land South of Vindya mountains as Dakshinapath. Accordingly Dakshinapath should include part of Gujarat, Maharashtra and Orissa.


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Jambudvipa or Jambu dweepa is generally understood as the name of ancient India, rich with Jambol trees. But it is not so. Actually Jamba means a bear. It is apparent that after Vaijayantam was abandoned by its inhabitants and the city was infested with wild bears by the end of Treta Yuga. That is why the place was referred to as Rukshabilam in Ramayanam. Ruksha and Jabmu are synonyms which represent a Bear. And it would not be an exaggeration to say that the present day  epithet of India as  Jambudwipa derived its name from the erstwhile Rikshabilam of Ramayana. ​(The following texts are extracts from Chapter 15, Vaijayantam in author’s BOOK: “A Tribute to the Ancient World of India”)

And given the references in Ramayana and elsewhere, the city of Vaijayanatam should be the Golden city of Tripura fame built by Maya. But let us not mistakenly think that the city was rich in gold.  But we have to understand that this city was rich as gold in terms of Divinity measured in the scale of Sanatana  Dharma. 

Krishna Dwipa

    During Mahabharata times there are three historical people related to the name of Krishna. They are Lord Krishna, Draupadi and Veda Vyasa. Name of Lord Krishna is well known. Draupadi is also called as Krishna . Whereas Veda Vyasa is called as Krishna Dwaipayana (dweller of Krishna Dwipa). . . . . .