Karachi resolution of AICC

Jawaharlal Nehru addressing the First sitting of the Constituent Assembly in 1946.

Karachi resolution This resolution on Fundamental rights is in fact was part of the grand declaration of the All India Congress Committed in its annual session held at Karachi in 1931. It contained several aspects like Labour laws, Industrial development, Economic principles, social development etc. Here we will take up only the section of Fundamental … Read more

Article 20 of the Constitution

This Article 20 Protects individuals from arbitrary conviction for offences. It provides mandates that no person shall be prosecuted and convicted based on retrospective laws. And no person shall be forced to give evidence against himself. Punishment based on prospective laws Article 20 (1) No person shall be convicted of any offence except for violation … Read more

Basic features of the Constitution

Emblem of Supreme court of India

Doctrine of Basic Structure The Doctrine of Basic Structure or Basic features of the Constitution was propounded by the Supreme Court while delivering Judgment on Kesavananda Bharati vs State of Kerala case in 1973 . Originally the Case was filed by Kesavananda Bharati in 1970 questioning the Validity of Land Reforms Act or 1963 of … Read more

Right to Life and Personal Liberty

Article 21 The Article 21 which forms part of the Fundamental Rights enshrined in the Constitution envisages that, “No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law”. Thus Article 21 of the Constitution provides for the Protection of life and personal liberty for all individuals against … Read more

American Bill of Rights

American Bill of rights appear as Amendments to the US Constitution of the United States of America starting from 1791 as these are added 5 years after declaration of Independence in 1776 by the US from the United Kingdom. (France actively helped the American colonies in their fight against England.) These Ten Amendments to the … Read more

Magna Carta of England

Magna carta English version

Magna Carta means the Great Charter. It was signed by King John of England in 1215 promising the protection of church rights, protection for the barons from illegal imprisonment, access to swift justice, and limitations on feudal payments to the Crown. And the Charter was to be implemented through a council of 25 barons. Originally … Read more

Bill of Rights of England

Bill of rights England 1689

The Bill of Rights of England received its royal assent in December 1689. It should be noted that England that is United Kingdom is still a Kingdom and their Acts are signed by its King or Queen, just like Bills passed by Indian Parliament become Laws after getting signature from President of India. The Act … Read more

French Bill of Rights

Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Bill of Rights were declared by the French Revolutionaries as Rights of Man and of the Citizen in 1789. These are 17 in number. It should be noted that while preparing the Fundamental Rights of the Indian Constitution, members of the Constituent Assembly studied this French Bill … Read more

Section 498A of I P C

Peacock feather

The section 498A of I P C has started taking its toll not only in terms of Lives but also destroying the very fabric of Institution of Indian Family. Nowadays parents of a Boy or a Man are scared of Section 498 A of I P Code so much so that they are distancing themselves … Read more


Secularism for the Western people is different from what we perceive and practice in India. And Spirit of Secularism was preached and practiced by our Leaders of the Nation. In fact, the word ‘Secularism’ was not there in our original Constitution. It was included in the Preamble of the Constitution in 1975. To a Westerner … Read more

Democracy Hijacked by Political parties

Aerial view of Parliament Building

It is apparent that Democratic norms have taken back seat at present in India for obvious reasons. Democracy Hijacked by Political parties and leaders of political Parties have been ruling the Country in an Autocratic manner. Persons occupying Offices of Government of India starting from President of India to Prime Minister, not to speak of … Read more

న్యాయ వ్యవస్థపై సమీక్ష

భారతీయ న్యాయ వ్యవస్థ లో మార్పులు చాల ఆవశ్యకమని చెబుతూ ఇండియన్ ఎక్స్ ప్రెస్ దినపత్రికలో 17.01.2002 ఈ ఉత్తరం వ్రాయడం జరిగింది. న అనిల్ దివాస్ అనే ఆయన జనవరి, 8 – 2002 తేదీన ప్రచురించిన ’చట్టం’ అనే వ్యాసానికి అనుకూలంగా ఈ ఉత్తరం నేను వ్రాశాను. అది సంపాదకులకు లేఖలు / శీర్షికలో ప్రచురితమయినది. భారత దేశంలో అధికారికమైన అన్ని ఉద్యోగాలకు ఏదోవిధమైన పోటి పరీక్షలు ఉంటాయి. అయితే ఏ విధమైన పోటీ పరీక్షలు లెకుండా ప్రభుత్వ అధికారంలోకి … Read more

Judicial reforms

Balance of Justice from Ancient Egypt

Anil Divan’s ‘Limited by Law’ (Jan 8, 2002), is timely in this age of IT and openness. Judicial Reforms are need of the hour for a better society and for steering the polity in right direction. It should be worth noting that only public servants inducted into Government service in India without conducting any screening … Read more

పార్టీ పిరాయింపుల నిరోధక చట్టము

Aerial view of Parliament Building

రాజకీయ పార్టీ అధినేతల నియంత్రుత్వ ధోరణికి మూలము, బలము పార్టీ ఫిరాయింపుల నిరోధక చట్టమే. అందుచేత పార్టీ పిరాయింపుల నిరోధక చట్టమును నిరోధిస్తే గాని మన ఎంపీలు ఎంఎల్యేలు  పార్లమెంటులోను, అసెంబ్లీలోను స్వతంత్ర్యంగా వ్యవహరించి ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్ రాష్ట్ర విభజనను అడ్డుకోలేరు. 4.10.13 తారీఖు ముందురోజు రాత్రి కేంద్ర ప్రభుత్వం మంత్రి మండలిలో రాష్ట్రాన్ని విభజించడానికి అనగా ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్ రాష్త్రం నుంచి పూర్వపు హైదరాబాదు రాష్ట్రాన్ని విడదీసి వేరే రాష్ట్రం గా ఏర్పాటు చెయ్యడానికి సన్నహాలు మొదలుపెడుతున్నట్లు న్యూఢిల్లీలో ప్రకటన చేశారు.  దీని పర్యావసానం … Read more

Westminister system of Govt

Nehru Signing on the Book of Constitution of India

J Nehru said that our  Government would be just like Westminster system of Govt of England. But England is a Kingdom and India is a Republic. So Indian system of Governance is superior to that of England. Actually Indian nation runs its polity based on Democratic and Republican principles as envisaged in the Constitution of India. Universal Franchise … Read more

Anti defection law

Aerial view of Parliament Building

I think main culprit behind this political degeneration of the Country is “ Anti defection law ” added under Schedule 10 as Articles 102(2) & 191(2) in 1985 as Constitutional Amendment No. 52. This law was enacted to prevent defection of MPs and MLA from their Parties after getting elected on a party ticket. Everyone … Read more

Article 356 of the Constitution

Apropos  ‘Perceptions’ on ‘misuse of article 356’  of the Constitution of India(IE April 12, 1993). Justice R.S.Sakaria rightly commented stating “Article 356 is comparable to a very potent medicine.” Article 356 is one of the major tools in the hands of  Union Government enabling it to check any disruptive and separatist tendencies in their infancy. … Read more


Indian Constitution front page

India, that is Bharat India, that is, Bharat became a Sovereign Democratic Republic officially on 26 January 1950. Prior to this event the Constitution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949. This date of January 26 was taken as a day of reckoning for becoming India a Republic because this was the … Read more

Fundamental rights

Nehru Signing on the Book of Constitution of India

The concept of India granting the future citizens of India their fundamental rights after departure of the British was perceived by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1927 itself. The idea was seconded by Subhash Chandra Bose. But none of the leaders in those days dreamt of India becoming a Sovereign Nation in near future and not speak … Read more

Democratic Principles of Nehru

Jawaharlal Nehru addressing the First sitting of the Constituent Assembly in 1946.

Actually Indian nation runs its polity based on Democratic and Republican principles as envisaged by Nehru in the Constitution of India. Universal Franchise is granted and all people can Vote in general elections. Government of India is conducted by a Cabinet of ministers who are responsible to the Parliament. J Nehru said that our  Government would be just … Read more