Bill of Rights of England

The Bill of Rights of England received its royal assent in December 1689. It should be noted that England that is United Kingdom is still a Kingdom and their Acts are signed by its King or Queen, just like Bills passed by Indian Parliament become Laws after getting signature from President of India.

The Act asserted “certain ancient rights and liberties” by declaring that:

the pretended power of suspending the laws and dispensing with (i.e. ignoring) laws by regal authority without consent of Parliament is illegal;

the commission for ecclesiastical causes is illegal; levying taxes without grant of Parliament is illegal;

it is the right of the subjects to petition the king, and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal;

keeping a standing army in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law;

Protestants may have arms for their defense suitable to their conditions and as allowed by law;

election of members of Parliament ought to be free;

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the freedom of speech and debates or proceedings in Parliament ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Parliament;

excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted;

jurors in trials for high treason ought to be freeholders;

promises of fines and forfeitures before conviction are illegal and void;

for redress of all grievances, and for the amending, strengthening and preserving of the laws, Parliaments ought to be held frequently.